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Monday, March 28, 2011

America, World Leader and Beyond - Chapter 22

          America, World Leader, 2000 and Beyond
(Please read the author’s Conclusion Pg. 828-829)
Chapter 22
1.      Why did Al Gore lose the 2000 election? Pg. 806-807

2.      Why were the outgoing Clintons so emboldened to “milk” the pubic after they left Washington and headed for New York? Pg. 80

3.      What was Clinton’s legacy with his own party? Pg. 810

4.      How would the aftermath of 9/11 been different had Obama been president? Carter? Reagan?

5.      “Government cannot legislate behavior.” How did this statement bear out after 9/11?

6.      What was the “Bush Doctrine”? Does it still exist? Explain. Pg. 816

7.      Was Bush more true Republican or Progressive? Explain. Pg. 820

8.      What evidence do we have from the “Shock and Awe” of the Gulf War that we could win and win quickly in Afghanistan, Libya, Iran, etc.? Pg. 822

9.      How much would you willingly contribute to Democratic lawmakers to finance a personal month’s all-inclusive “vacation” to Gitmo? Pg. 825

10.   What has been most enlightening to you about  the “City on the Hill” mentioned in chapter 1 and throughout the book? Consider Jamestown, the American Revolution, Gettysburg, the Industrial Revolution, World War II, etc. What seems to be the common threads unmatched by any other nation or culture?

    People have asked me several times why I didn’t charge to take this class. There were several reasons: 1) Anyone could have led these discussions – which you often did! 2) Taking money makes you a professional. Nuff said? 3) Choice and Accountability for acting on truth is individual and cannot be mandated by any monetary amount, 4) My goal was merely to facilitate and let you decide what to do with the information. My hope is that it burned deeper patriotism into your heart and that you will be able to do the hard things and bear the burdens that may be placed thereon which we all will face in the future.
    Thanks for all you taught us, and added to my life. It has been a pleasure.

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Retreat and Resurrection - Chapter 20

1.      How was Gerald Ford’s “bland personality” a welcome relief for America? Pg. 721-22 From all the turmoil of Nixon, Watergate and Johnson and the Vietnam War it was a needed change. Ford was at least honest if nothing else.
2.      What became of South Vietnam after the U.S. left the country? Pg. 723 The North eventually surrounded Saigon and captured the south. Literally millions of South Vietnamese were killed in “reeducation” camps. Many tried to leave on U.S. helicopters but were held at bay by gunpoint. The lucky ones that escaped came to America to establish fake nail salons.

3.      After the “Six Day War” with Egypt, how did Nixon alone “save Israel”? Pg. 725 Prime Minister, Golda Meir, persuaded Nixon to provide an emergency airlift of arms, which provided the logistics for a Jewish counterattack after days of absorbing blows. Thousands of tons of supplies were delivered and Israel was again successful.

4.      What caused the horrendous gas lines in the ‘70’s?  How did the flood of government regulation affect the economy thereafter? Pg. 726-728 OPEC cut oil production and boosted prices by 70%. Then two months later, they hiked prices again by 128%. With the skyrocketing prices, Nixon imposed a ceiling on gas prices which made gas artificially low. People frantically filled up their cars in panic, causing horrible lines at gas stations. The flood of regulation stopped business in its tracks. All the restrictions and emissions but greater strain on the auto industry, etc. and increased prices were passed on to consumers. OSHA cost businesses thousands of dollars to come into compliance with government regulation. Big businesses such as IBM, AT&T, Bell, did not innovate one of the top 50 products like the cell phone, personal computer, etc.

5.      How did labor unions affect the economy of the ’70’s? Discuss the importance to the NEA’s labor union fight in Wisconsin today. Pg. 729 Became the right arm of the Democratic party. The cost of labor increased 6 times over foreign countries. Americans paid up to 70% more to stay loyal to American made products. Because unions took a hit with memberships dropping, the NEA and the union for federal employees became the union’s last gasp. The fight in Wisconsin today is vitally important to whether unions live or die nationwide.

6.      What impact did the ERA, the Pill, and feminism have on the family and the economy in general? Pg. 731-732 The Pill was originally designed to get rid of the “less desirable” in our society; blacks, handicapped children, etc. It went much further than that however. With the Pill, women were not held accountable by their actions. By not becoming pregnant, they could now pursue a career and basically “have it all”. In reality, they had the job on top of the family. They paid extra in gas, clothes, childcare, eating more fast food. There was more pressure to keep up with the Joneses; a bigger house, boat, cars, etc. hence – more stress. Only the pesky religion thing was in their way. The feminists fought against the restrictions of religion, and many churches caved to the pressure in order to keep their members happy and money coming in. The role of fathers became diminished. Men were portrayed as being dumb and that women didn’t need them. The result – children involved in crime, bad grades, and low self-esteem. Men left their wives for the “new and improved” wife. Funny thing… they left her after a while too.

7.      Explain the significance of the SALT I treaty. Pg. 737 This was an attempt by Carter and Brezhnev. SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement, also known as Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. SALT II actually put the U.S. at a huge disadvantage.

8.      Camp David Accords. Who was involved? What was the final outcome? How did Carter accomplish such a feat? Pg. 740-741 Carter, Egypt’s Anwar el Sadat, and Israel’s Menachem Begin. Normalized relations between the two countries but the deal was clinched when Carter offered “the largest-ever American Foreign-aid package… a total of $5 billion over a three-year period.” And two military airfields for Israel in the Negev. Unfortunately, this did not address the religious problem that has always been at the route of the middle east conflict.

9.      Describe the “America Held Hostage” crisis. How could that have been avoided according to the authors? Pg. 742 Carter’s weakness and vacillation in foreign policy was a huge detriment. He failed to see that the Iranians were a serious threat. The Ayatollah stormed the American embassy and took the employees hostage threatening to kill all of them if there was an attempt to rescue them. American stood helplessly by tying yellow ribbons on old oak trees.

10.    The 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team won the gold against Russia. What did this symbolize? Pg. 742-43 That the U.S. could indeed conquer the Soviets. That the U.S. had the tenacity to win against all odds. It was a statement about the strength of democracy vs. communism.

11.   How did the media spin Reagan’s stunning victory over incumbent Carter? Pg. 746 1) low turnout – even though the dems took bus loads of people out to register voters who never intended to vote, 2) attacked his acting career: that he didn’t play any great or substantial roles.

12.   What one characteristic would say made Ronald Reagan one of the greatest U.S. presidents? Pg. 747 Self-deprecating personality, humor, laughing and joking, did not take life so serious, hard on terrorists and bad guys, was not afraid to call it like it is. Russia is an “evil empire
13.   How did Reagan’s “voodoo economics” (a term affectionately coined by George H.W. Bush) affect the sagging economy? Pg. 748 Great! The trickle down affected almost everyone. Markets prospered, people had more money in their pockets. ”. Lower capital gains taxes caused investors to pump money into the economy. This all resulted in confidence in American productivity and purpose.

14.   “Freedom is not the sole prerogative of a lucky few, but the inalienable and universal right of all human beings…” Discuss this observation and how it shaped Reagan’s foreign policy. Pg. 752-53 He truly believed, as did the forefathers, in man’s inherent desire to be free and that he wanted to do everything in his power to ensure the freedoms of all men.

15.   How did SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) contribute to the downfall of communism? Pg. 757 Strategic Defensive Initiative was a U.S. program designed specifically to “ render obsolete, once and for all, much of the USSR’s advantage in nuclear missiles.”

16.   Compare Reagan’s economy of the late ‘80’s to the previous 30-40 years. Pg. 759 We had a president with a spine who would actually go after the bad guys and keep us safe. His tax cuts and benefits to business and drop in regulation helped everyone to prosper; not just an elite few.

17.   Was Oliver North on the right side by taking all the blame for the Iran Contra scandal and not implicating Reagan? Pg. 761

18.   Few events are as iconic or symbolic as the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. What did that represent besides a pile of rubble? Pg. 762. Freedom and Reagan’s belief that all men should be free to choose and live as they see fit.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011


                      MORAL CROSSROADS, 1989-2000
      Chapter 21
1.      When a politician needs to “moves to the middle” what does that tell you about his/her convictions? What did George H.W. Bush painfully realize by doing so? Pg. 764 Anyone who has to “move” to the center has no convictions and shouldn’t be trusted. As when Bush betrayed the public with his “read my lips” booboo.

2.      Once the Berlin was destroyed, communism fell apart rather quickly. Why? How did its demise affect the U.S. economy? Pg. 768 Because of the yearning to be free of the people. Communism is a government that needs intimidation and force for it to work. Without that it was fairly easy to conquer. The U.S. economy saw job losses in aerospace, shipbuilding, many businesses, thousands of engineers, and a depletion of the military.

3.       What reason did Saddam Hussein give for invading Kuwait? What was the real reason? Pg. 768-769 He said that Kuwait was legally part of Iraq, but what he really wanted to do is control a large part of the oil production in the Middle East which would then be a direct hazard to the free flow of oil at market prices. This, then, would pose a threat to American security.

4.      How did Bush approach “Desert Shield” that made it look like it would be a short fight? Pg. 772 He went in with full force and fought it “the American Way” with everything we had. The Iraqis left in droves and surrendered.
  1. Was the Rodney King trial fair or merely a capitulation to political correctness?  Why? Pg. 774 Definitely capitulation to political correctness. It’s a case of the government being afraid of a few trouble makers. The policemen certainly crossed the line, but 54 people needlessly died and thousands of buildings were destroyed.
  2. Define the pitfalls of all three 1992 presidential candidates. Since Perot siphoned off 19% of the vote, is a third party candidate a viable solution? Pg. 773-777 Bush, lied about not raising taxes, Clinton, total scum, Perot; not attractive enough, couldn’t debate with a real opponent because his policies were simple but not realistic.
  3.  What is the biggest difference between “Hillary-care” and “Obama-care” as far as you can tell? Pg. 778 Hillary’s was much more blatant an affront to business and doctors. It was based on dictatorial force. Obama’s would probably prove to be the same thing, but is more covert. Plus it was absolutely forced upon us and coerced upon the congress.
  4. How did Clinton’s attempt to “make his cabinet look like America” come back to bite him? Pg. 779 They were jokingly referred to as “America’s Most Wanted”. Major idiots. Jocelyn Elders, Henry Cisneros, sexual harassment, Webster Hubbell, Whitewater, Mike Espy, illicit deals with Tyson foods, Bruce Babbitt, illegal deals with Indians, etc.
NOTES: How did Newt Gingrich’s “Contract with America” damage the Democrats in the following election?  How did Clinton make a comeback Pg. 783 He managed to capture both the house and the senate for the first time in 40 years. The Democrats lost 35 seats as a referendum on Clinton’s presidency. The media tried to spin it as a “referendum on incumbents” but all Republican incumbents won reelection. Clinton then scrambled to the middle and his advisor, Dick Morris, crafted a plan for him acting as the reasonable father to two spoiled children. He barked that “the era of big government is over” all the while hoping for the Dems to win back the House and Senate in 1996.
  1. How did the ‘90’s boom get Clinton reelected despite his many scandals and legal challenges?  Pg .785-788 The technology boom sent the economy soaring and most people were doing great, so they dismissed or didn’t care that Clinton was a scum. Plus his thugs and advisors made a point to isolate, diminish, and mock each incident to play it down until it went away.
  2. Describe the business boom of the ‘90’s. Could we duplicate that today? How? Pg. 788-790 NO chance. Too much anti-business rhetoric. Too much regulation and vilification of business.
  3. What was the climate as far as guns and religion in the ‘90’s?  How does prosperity often dictate those feelings? Pg. 792-793 Gun sales went up dramatically. The Supreme Court ruled that “the right to bear arms” was an individual right, not a militia right.
  4. What did Clinton’s character weaknesses teach the masses; especially children? Pg. 783-795 That character didn’t matter. Everyone does it anyway. What happens in one’s private life should not matter in his/her political life.
  5. Despite Clinton’s dismissed impeachment, what happened to members of his cabinet? Pg. 798 They were prosecuted and/or jailed for their crimes. They took the hit for Clinton.
  6. Describe Clinton’s foreign woes. How did he handle them? Pg. 800-802 He was a pacifist who turned down three opportunities to capture Bin Laden. These were offers by other countries to turn him over to the U.S. He chose not to rock the boat because the economy was doing great and he wanted to coast out of office with a great legacy. Everything he did was after the fact and succeeded only at weakening America in the eyes of foreign dictators and leaders.
  7. How did Clinton misjudge Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden? Pg. 802 He thought they were no danger. Just misunderstood. Clinton didn’t think they had the power to be an international threat.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

The Age of Upheaval

The Age of Upheaval, 1960-74
1.      The authors give five reasons why Nixon was “doomed to fail” in his presidential campaign. What were they? Pg. 668
2.      Describe the Kennedy “silver spoon.” Pg. 670
3.      What was Kennedy’s tie to the mafia? Pg. 671
4.      Discuss the “Bay of Pigs” or the “Cuban Missile Crisis”. Pg. 671-672
5.      What were Kennedy’s goals and objectives with space exploration? Pg. 674
6.      Define “trickledown economics”. Pg. 675
7.      How did the Vietcong guerrillas ensure that life did not improve for refugees pouring into the south? Pg. 676
8.      What blame does JFK bear for Vietnam? Why? Pg. 678
9.      Why did Lee Harvey Oswald want to assassinate JKF? Pg. 680
10.   What was the “Warren Commission”? Pg. 680
11.   How was LBJ chosen to be the vice president? Pg. 681
12.   What infiltrated the black protest and MLK’s fight using righteous indignation and non-violence? Pg. 685
13.   What were the immediate results of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Pg. 686
14.   What happened to “the Black Panthers”? Pg. 687
15.   How did LBJ’s “Great Society” cripple and enslave the black community? Pg. 687-689
16.   Compare LBJ’s treatment of Ho Chi Minh to Obama’s treatment of Ghaddafi or Islam extremists. Pg. 690
17.   LBJ never called for a formal declaration of war on the Vietcong. Why? Pg. 691
18.   How effective was McNamara’s strategy of “Rolling Thunder”? Pg. 692
19.   Describe the “Tet Offensive.” How was it perceived by U.S. citizens? Why? 694
20.   Define “Hawks” and “Doves” Pg.696
21.   How have unions changed since Vietnam? Pg.696
22.   How did “Baby Boomers” change the dynamics of American education?
23.   What was the “Port Huron statement”? How did it foment student riots? Pg. 699
24.   How did the communist threat infiltrate American colleges and universities? Pg. 700
25.   Woodstock…. Gives us pause to be grateful for a) strict parents, b) being too young, c) taking too many baths, d) being boring right-wing establishment types, e) all of the above.
Pg. 700-707
26.   What policies showed the “right wing” side of Nixon? Which showed the “left wing”? Pg. 708
27.   What have been the long-term effects of Nixon’s EPA and OSHA? Pg. 709-710
28.   How did Nixon aid in the destabilization of the dollar? What were the effects? Pg. 710
29.   Who were the “Weathermen”? What were their goals” Pg. 712
30.   Watergate was merely a “gotcha” or a catalyst in Nixon’s impeachment hearings. What really forced him to resign as president?  (see #1 also!)Pg. 718-719

Friday, February 25, 2011

America's "Happy Days"- 1946-59

1.      Compare the election of 1946 to the election of Nov. 2, 2011 Pg. 631

2.      How did the USSR contribute to the continuation of the WWII conflict despite the “end” of the war and signing of treaties? Pg. 632

3.      Compare/contrast the following: fascism, communism, socialism, totalitarianism, imperialism, capitalism. Name a proponent of each.

4.      Where did the term “Iron Curtain” originate? What did it mean? Pg. 635

5.      What were the conditions in post-war America that could possibly have allowed communist beliefs to infiltrate the United States government. Pg. 636-637

6.      How did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan react to “The Cold War”? Pg. 638-637

7.      Was Truman an effective president at this point? Did he deserve to be reelected? Pg. 639-640

8.      How did the communists use our own culture as propaganda against us? Pg. 640

9.      How was jazz used to promote peace with Europe? Pg. 641

10.   Why did the U.S. choose to engage Korea in war but not China? Pg. 642

11.   Was Truman right when he relieved General MacArthur from duty? Why or why not? Pg. 643-644

12.   Where did the term “Horsemeat Harry” come from? Pg. 644

13.   Define McCarthyism. Do you agree with the derogatory meaning it holds today? Pg. 645-646

14.   How was communism squelched? Pg. 646

15.   What made Eisenhower an appealing candidate for president? Pg. 648

16.   How did Ike deal with the “New Deal” policies? Pg. 649-650

17.   What were the unique findings of RAND that lead to MAD? Pg. 651

18.   How did Ike promote this atomic age for an untapped energy resource? Pg. 651-652

19.   Sputnik… what message did it send? How did the American public view it? The American government? How did the government change its initial reaction? Pg. 652-653

20.   Anyone want to pummel Dr. Spock? What did he advocate and what were the results? Pg. 655

21.   How does America evolve from the concept of rugged individualism to cookie-cutter conformity? Do you agree or disagree? Pg. 658

22.   How did many religions adapt to America’s new found freedoms and prosperity? Pg. 660

23.   Define the Invisible Man. How did television and Hollywood condone this concept? Pg. 661

24.   “Back of the bus.” Where did this originate and what does this phrase embody about society at this time? Pg. 664

25.   How did Martin Luther King incorporate an appeal for inner goodness and capitalism to overcome racial prejudice? Pg. 664-665

26.   Define the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Was it successful? Pg. 665

27.   If you had only the history up to 1959, in your opinion, what would be the top three issues leading to the turbulence of the ‘60’s?

Sunday, February 20, 2011

Democracy's Finest Hour, 1941-1945

Democracy’s Finest Hour, 1941-1945
Chapter 17
1.      Though both formidable foes, what were the main differences between Germany and Japan entering into another world war? Pg. 590 Germany was well prepared technologically and was out to literally conquer the world. Japan, however, had no illusions about being able to sustain itself if the war “lasted three years.” They felt it would be lucky for them to last 6 months to a year.
2.      If Japan was so unprepared for war, why did they pursue it full force? Pg. 591  Culture and racial overtone play a critical part in understanding this intriguing subject.  Japan had been dawdling in China for three years when America threatened to cut off credit to them thereby cutting Japan’s ability to get petroleum. The Japanese felt threatened by the U.S. that it was leading the charge to isolate Japan from the rest of the world.  The Yamato race, according to the Japanese, were the superior race and certainly superior to the “mongoloid mix” of Americans. Therefore, they would force a massive attack on the U.S., crippling their navy, then move into Burma and the rest of Asia, commandeering their militaries, thereby building Japan’s. General Hideki Tojo, known as the Razor – a ruthless man, planned to “shock and awe” the Americans into submission quickly. He planned an all out assault on America’s naval fleet at Pearl Harbor and then planned to attack and “swallow” up all of Asia. Japan was steeped in tradition and Bushido warrior (Samurai – death over defeat) tactics.
3.      Though devastating and frightening, the attack on Pearl Harbor was not a success for the Japanese because of these four reasons. Pg 594 1) Yamamoto did not take the carriers as part of his winnings, 2) Most of the carriers would be salvaged and used against him, 3) He failed to destroy the oil storage facilities, 4) He awakened “a sleeping  giant” in the American people.
·        Roosevelt was later accused of having prior knowledge of the Pearl Harbor disaster. It has been proven false. On Dec. 8th, he asked congress for a declaration of war against Japan. Three days later, Germany declared war on the United States. Though he recognized the danger of Nazi Germany and the evil of Hitler, Roosevelt would not enter the U.S. into war because it might jeopardize his popularity. He knew it would happen sooner or later, but he put it off as long as possible for his own gain.
4.      According to the authors, how would the war’s outcome have been different had Roosevelt declared war “on our own timetable”? pg. 596-597 Hitler’s strategic “blitzkrieg” may have been stopped, perhaps the Holocaust may have been avoided, Hitler may not have invaded Poland and/or Russia. FDR was more worried about his popularity than the millions of people whose lives were in jeopardy.
5.      Compare Hollywood’s support of WWII and Vietnam, etc. Pg. 599 WWII Hollywood was extremely supportive and hundreds put their careers on hold to support the country and do their civic duty. Today… Hollywood are pacifist wimps…. Most of them.
6.      Movies, music, books, art, etc. were all engaged in propaganda in America. What sentiments were they promoting? Why was it necessary according to the authors? Pg. 599  Support for the war. Donald Duck as a war hero, racist tunes against Japanese or Germans, or Italians, etc. Necessary because Americans, as a rule, didn’t have a clue that other cultures were natural born killers and ruthless. We didn’t understand that mentality. Needed to know the inherent dangers.
7.      Why was the American military so successful? (Let’s not compare it to today’s… why get depressed, huh?) Pg. 599. The war totally galvanized the country in support of the war. A groundswell of patriotism and sacrifice by all Americans with winning as the goal could not help but result in a successful military.
8.      What did the U.S. do with its large numbers of POW’s? pg. 604 Put them in camps like in Arizona. One man escaped into the vast desert only to be later captured in the buttes trying to get out of the heat.

·        The very traits of the New Deal that had denounced self-reliance, individual effort and capitalism, were trashed because of the need for capitalists.
9.      What was the “Manhattan Project”? pg. 605 Emerged with a letter to FDR by Albert Einstein warning him that Germany could have a nuclear bomb. The U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada were involved. It started in Manhattan, New York where it got its name.
10.   Describe the effectiveness of America’s “strategic bombing campaign” against Germany. Pg 606-607 Allied bombing was devastating and played a key role in winning the war for the following reasons: 1) a significant number of German planes left the Eastern Front where they could have taken out Russian tanks, 2) The bombing destroyed much of Germany’s war production capabilities: oil, more aircraft, submarines, etc. 3) Germany lost many pilots and planes from the bombing campaign.
11.   Explain the significance of “Bataan” in the Pacific theatre. Pg. 608 Eleven thousand Americans on the Batann Peninsula were marched inland on hot jungle roads with no food or water. They were tortured and left to die on the road.
12.   Most Americans had an exaggerated and distorted view of the Japanese. Referring back to question #2, why were we so afraid of the Japanese? What did FDR do with most of the Japanese-Americans during this time? Pg. 608 Rounded them up and put them in “relocation camps” or “internment camps”.
13.   Compare the “western way of war” to the German, Russian, Japanese, Middle-Eastern way of war. pg. 609 We have used “water boarding” as a means to get information.We paid reparations to the Japanese because we realized internment camps had been wrong. We are humane and believe in the value of life and the individual whereas other countries do not.
14.   What was significant about the “Battle off the Coral Sea”? pg. 610 First naval engagement fought solely from carrier-launched aircraft. After the Yorktown was damaged, the US was left with only the Enterprise and the Hornet in the eastern Pacific to confront the entire Japanese fleet.
15.   What was the “Miracle at Midway”? Pg. 610-611 (HISTORY.COM BATTLE AT MIDWAY) Just six months after the vicious attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attempt to lure the remaining US fleet into the Pacific near Midway Atoll. In an amazing turn of events, US fighter planes attack the Japanese carriers and exposed fleet of Zeros (planes). Over 300 trained Japanese pilots were killed as well as destroying and debilitating the entire Imperial Naval fleet of Japan.
16.   What was “Operation Torch” and how did it affect Hitler’s forces? Pg. 612 Britain and America joined forces to annihilate the Axis powers in Africa. This stopped any attempt of Hitler to link up with the Japanese forces. In May 1943, more than a quarter million German and Italian soldiers surrendered, dealing Hitler his first serious defeat and securing the Mediterranean for the Allied navies.
17.   What happened to Mussolini? How did Hitler co-opt him? Pg. 613 After Italy surrendered to the Allied forces, the Italians were furious at Mussolini and his very unpopular war. He escaped and hid until the Nazi’s helped him escape and reinstated him as a “puppet” dictator. Of course, Hitler was really calling the shots. Mussolini was eventually captured by Italian partisans and hung in the public square along with his mistress, Clara Petacci.

18.   What was the reaction of world leaders to the Invasion of Normandy, or D-Day? Pg. 617. Churchill and Roosevelt thought it was ingenious; despite the fact that Eisenhower and Patton had changed the original plan. Though too many troops lost their lives, it was a definite turning point in the war and facilitated France’s freedom from Germany.
19.   What happened to Hitler? Pg. 620 Committed suicide with his new wife, formally his mistress.
20.   Why did Roosevelt, the leader of the free world, not do something about the plight of the Jews and Hitler’s goal for a Judenfrei (Jewish free) Germany? Or about the mass murder inflicted by Stalin in Russia? Pg. 622 Roosevelt was in total denial that it was even happening. He pandered to Stalin and felt like he was basically a good guy. Though he had all kinds of influence and pull, he exercised none of it to help the Jews.

21.   What happened to the “Displaced Jews” after the Holocaust? How did the U.S. view the Zionist State? Pg. 621 Many were too afraid to return back to Poland, Germany, France, etc. The United Nations decided through the Balfour Declaration that they could occupy Israel, which was under British rule, and that Israel would become an independent state. Roosevelt did not support a Zionist State and did nothing to help the Jews. He died unexpectedly and Truman took over totally support the Jews and their move to Israel.

22.   Explain the significance of the battles of Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. Pg. 623-625 The Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower. It was the second major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.[8] The objective was to deny the use of these bases by the Japanese to threaten supply routes between the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic combined arms victory by Allied forces over the Japanese in the Pacific theatre.  Guadalcanal marked the transition by the Allies from defensive operations to the strategic offensive in that theatre and the beginning of offensive operations that resulted in Japan's eventual surrender and the end of World War II.
Iwo Jima: The U.S. invasion, charged with the mission of capturing the three airfields on Iwo Jima,[2] resulted in some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War IIThe battle was the first American attack on the Japanese Home Islands, and the Imperial soldiers defended their positions tenaciously. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American overall casualties exceeded the Japanese. The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five Marines and one Navy Corpsman. The photograph records the second flag-raising on the mountain, which took place on the fifth day of the 35-day battle. The picture became the iconic image of the battle and has been heavily reproduced.
Okinawa: the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War.[4   Japanese used a “Typhoon of Steel” referring to the vast number of Kamikaze attacks used and from the sheer numbers of war ships that invaded the island from the Allied forces. Hirohito refused to give in. Even the women and children were trained to fight the Allies. “Death before Defeat” Even with the declaration of the “Potsdam Proclamation” that required “unconditional surrender” the Japanese looked at with complete contempt and only dug their heels in further committing even more severe atrocities to POW’s.
23.   What three reasons are cited by the author that justify the dropping of the atomic bombs? Pg. 628-630 1) Invading Japan would cost more American lives, 2) They also calculated the thought process of Hirohito and the Japanese concept of “Death over Defeat” and realized that without complete annihilation, they would just continue to fight and sacrifice lives, regardless of what it was doing to their own people, 3) The Japanese proved to be as depraved and vile as the Nazis and that part of the peace agreements would be to completely dismantle the samurai Bushido way of war.

Thursday, February 10, 2011

Enlarging the Public Sector - Chapter 16

Enlarging the Public Sector, 1932-40
Chapter 16
1.      How did capitalism “save” America from the New Deal? Pg. 560
2.      Define Keynesian economics. How do you see it being applied today? Pg. 561
3.      What did the term “alphabet soup” have to do with FDR’s policies? Pg. 564
4.      How did the relationship between Democrats and labor unions change from the late 1800’s to the 1930’s? pg. 566
5.       How did the AAA attempt to manipulate the agricultural market? What were the effects? Pg. 567
6.      What were the general effects of the New Deal? Pg. 568
7.      How did the “black vote” move from Republican to Democrat? Pg. 572
8.      How did the Democrat party ensure vast and loyal support by mostly low-income voting blocs? Pg. 573
9.      How did FDR attempt to circumvent the checks and balances system of the constitution? Pg. 574
10.   Compare America’s dismissal of Mussolini and Hitler to today’s basic dismissal of Iran’s Ahmadinejad or Anwar Awlaki? Pg. 577
11.   Why did the American administration basically ignore the atrocities of Hitler, Mussolini, and Mao in their inhumane treatment of their own people? Pg. 578
12.   How does the politicians’ views of Stalin, Lenin, Hitler, etc. bare eerie resemblance to today’s politicians’ views of Radical Islam? Pg. 582
13.   Describe Hitler’s blitzkrieg. Pg. 583
14.   How was propaganda used to convince the U.S. to join the war? Pg. 584
15.   How did Roosevelt’s isolationist attitude fail to prepare the U.S. for war? Pg. 586
16.   What was Hitler’s reason for invading Poland and Russia? Pg. 588